OLD AND NEW CHALLENGES FOR THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION
At a quick search in a dictionary, one can find that nutrition is “the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism uses food to sustain its life; it includes ingestion, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion” (Encyclopedia Britannica) (1). However, the term nutrition also means “the science that studies the physiological process of nutrition (primarily human nutrition), interpreting the nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism” (2).
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https://www.britannica.com/ science/translational-medicine. Accesed 4 oct 2021.
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7. Satija A, Yu E, Willett WC, Hu FB. Understanding Nutritional Epidemiology and Its Role in Policy. Adv. Nutr 2015; 6(1): 5-18. doi: 10.3945/an.114.007492.
8. Mozaffarian D, Rosenberg I, Uauy R. History of modern nutrition science - implications for current research, dietary guidelines, and food policy BMJ 2018; 361: k2392 / doi: 10.1136/bmj.k2392.
9. Carpenter KJ. The History of Scurvy and Vitamin C, Cambridge University Press, New York. 1986, 52-54
10. Magendie F. An Elementary Compendium of Physiology 1831, John Carfrae & Son, Edinburgh, 4th edition. ASIN: B000TCAVO4
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13. Johns DM, Oppenheimer GM. Was there ever really a “sugar conspiracy”? Science 2018; 359 (6377): 747-750 / doi: 10.1126/science.aaq1618.
14. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases a Report of the Who Study Group on Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases, Nutr Rev, 1991; 49(10): 291-301. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1991.tb07370.x.
15. Satija A, Yu E, Willett WC, Hu FB. Understanding nutritional epidemiology and its role in policy. Adv Nutr 2015; 6(1): 5-18 / doi: 10.3945/an.114.007492.
16. Wells JC, Sawaya AL, Wibaek R, et al. The double burden of malnutrition: etiological pathways and consequences for health. Lancet 2020; 395(10217): 75-88 / doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32472-9.
17. GBD 2017 Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2018 Nov 10;392(10159):1736-1788. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32203-7.
18. Popkin BM. The nutrition transition: an overview of world patterns of change. Nutr Rev. 2004; 62(7 Pt 2): S140-143 / doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2004.tb00084.x.
19. Lawrence MA, Baker PI. Ultra-processed food and adverse health outcomes. BMJ 2019; 365: l2289 / doi: 10.1136/bmj.l2289.
20. Frenk J, Gómez-Dantés O. The triple burden: disease in developing nations. Harvard Int Rev. 2011; 33(3): 5.
21. Swinburn BA, Kraak VI, Allender S, et al. The Global Syndemic of Obesity, Undernutrition, and Climate Change: The Lancet Commission report. Lancet 2019; 393(10173): 791-846 / doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32822-8.
22. Lucas T, Horton R. The 21st-century great food transformation. Lancet 2019; 393(10170): 386-387. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33179-9.
23. Horton R. Offline: After 2000 years, an answer arrives. Lancet 2020; 395(10219): 174 / doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30095-7.
24. UN(A/RES/70/1) Resolution adopted by General Assembly on 25 September 2015 Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development . 15-16301 (E) sustainabledevelopment.un.org
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