IMPLICATIONS OF LIPID AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES, CARDIOVASCULAR AND NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE
The systemic inflammatory response in periodontal disease is characterized by the presence of inflammatory mediators. The systemic inflammatory response positively influences the risk of developing diabetes and its complications, atherosclerotic diseases and other chronic conditions. Metabolic syndrome is a consequence of the modern lifestyle, an accumulation of metabolic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular risk. Abnormal distribution of adipose tissue with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia are some of these abnormalities but also increased blood pressure, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, and pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory status are other conditions. The study’s main objective was to evaluate the hypothesis that inflammatory changes in gingival tissue are correlated to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The medical records of 181 subjects were used in this retrospective study. The results suggested that periodontal disease can influence the systemic level of inflammatory mediators in patients with systemic diseases (DM, CVD, and NAFLD) by mechanisms that rely on oral microbial flora exposure and control. Conclusions: by influencing lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, NAFLD is closely correlated to cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and study into these factors in patients with periodontal disease helps to highlight the association between these diseases.
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