DRY EYE SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR PATHOLOGY
The present study aims to open a new perspective in addressing patients suffering from the dry eye syndrome through the analysis of biometric markers that explain the long-term evolution of these patients, especially those with cardiovascular dysfunctions. Material and methods: In this study were included 200 patients from Comanesti County Hospital who were examined between 2016 and 2018. The cases were structured in 4 groups of 50 patients each, with or without cardiovascular disease, with or without dry eye syndrome. Results: Gender distribution showed a slightly higher proportion of women in all study groups. Dyslipidemia was identified in 70% of patients and hypertension in 66% of them. Other frequent pathologies identified in the study group were angina pectoris which was discovered in 28% of patients and diabetes mellitus which was found in 23.3% of them. Heart failure was found in 39% of all patients suffering from dry eye syndrome and it was significantly more frequent in women (57.5% vs. 26.7%). Conclusions: The heart failure was significantly more common in women and in those aged over 60 years for whom the estimated risk was more than 2.5 times higher in the whole group and about 2 times higher in patients suffering from the dry eye syndrome. Central corneal thickness, corneal resistance, corneal hysteresis are good predictors of the dry eye syndrome with/without cardiovascular damage.
2. Stern ME, Beuerman RW, Fox RI, Gao J, Mircheff AK, Pflugfelder SC. The pathology of dry eye: the interaction between the ocular surface and lacrimal glands. Cornea 1998; 17(6): 584-589.
3. Kojima T, Dogru M, Kawashima M, Nakamura S, Tsubota K. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. Prog Retin Eye Res 2020; 29: 100842.
4. Javadi MA, Feizi S. Dry eye syndrome. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2011; 6(3): 192-198.
5. Levenson JW, et al. Reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease: the role of risk factors. Preventative Cardiology 2002; 5: 188-99.
6. Dana R, Bradley JL, Guerin A, Pivneva I, Evans AM, Stillman IÖ. Comorbidities and Prescribed Medications in Patients With or Without Dry Eye Disease: A Population-Based Study. Am J Oph-thalmol 2019; 198: 181-192.
7. Craig JP, Nichols KK, Akpek EK, et al. TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report. Ocul Surf 2017; 15(3): 276-283.
8. Stapleton F. Alves M, Bunya VY, et al. TFOS DEWS II epidemiology report. Ocul Surf 2017; 15(3): 334-365.
9. Bron AJ, de Paiva CS, Chauhan SK, et al. TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report. Ocul Surf 2017; 15(3): 438-510.
10. Fuerst N, Langelier N, Massaro-Giordano M, et al. Tear osmolarity and dry eye symptoms in diabetics. Clin Ophthalmol 2014; 8: 507-515.
11. Chew ML, Mulsant BH. Pollock BG. et al. Anticholinergic activity of 107 medications commonly used by older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008; 56(7): 1333-1341.
12. Butovich IA, Millar TJ, Ham BM. Understanding and analyzing meibomian lipids-a review. Curr Eye Res 2008; 33(5): 405-420.
13. Schein OD, Munoz B, Tielsch JM, Bandeen-Roche K, West S. Prevalence of dry eye among the elderly. Am J Ophthalmol 1997; 124: 723-728.
14. Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Incidence of dry eye in an older population. Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122: 369-373.
15. Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Buring JE, Dana MR. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US women. Am J Ophthalmol 2003; 136: 318-326.
16. Schaumberg DA, Dana R, Buring JE, Sullivan DA. Prevalence of dry eye disease among US men: estimates from the Physicians’ Health Studies. Arch Ophthalmol 2009; 127: 763-768.
17. Schein OD, Hochberg MC, Munoz B, et al. Dry eye and dry mouth in the elderly: a population-based assessment. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159: 1359-1363.
18. Paulsen AJ, Cruickshanks KJ, Fischer ME, et al. Dry eye in the beaver dam offspring study: prevalence, risk factors. and health-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol 2014; 157: 799-806.
19. Chia EM, Mitchell P, Rochtchina E, Lee AJ, Maroun R, Wang JJ. Prevalence and associations of dry eye syndrome in an older population: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2003; 31: 229-232.
20. McCarty CA, Bansal AK, Livingston PM, Stanislavsky YL, Taylor HR. The epidemiology of dry eye in Melbourne. Australia. Ophthalmology 1998; 105: 1114-1119.
21. Lamberts DW. Foster CS. Perry HD. Schirmer test after topical aesthesis and the tear menus height in normal eyes. ArchOphthalmol 1979; 97: 1082-1085.
22. de Paiva CS. Effects of Aging in Dry Eye. Int Ophthalmol Clin 2017; 57(2): 47-64.
23. Shokr H, Wolffsohn JS, Trave Huarte S, Scarpello E, Gherghel D. Dry eye disease is associated with retinal microvascular dysfunction and possible risk for cardiovascular disease. Acta Ophthalmol 2021; 99(7): e1236-e1242.
24. Borrego-Sanz L, Sáenz-Francés San Baldomero F, Díaz Valle D, et al. Comparison of corneal biomechanical properties of patients with dry eye secondary to Sjögren’s syndrome and healthy subjects. J Fr Ophtalmol 2018; 41(9): 802-808.
Once an article is accepted for publication, MSJ requests a transfer of copyrights for published articles.
COPYRIGHT TRANSFER FORM FOR
REVISTA MEDICO-CHIRURGICALĂ A SOCIETĂȚII DE MEDICI ȘI NATURALIȘTI DIN IAȘI /
THE MEDICAL-SURGICAL JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF PHYSICIANS AND NATURALISTS FROM IASI
We, the undersigned authors of the manuscript entitled
warrant that this manuscript, which is submitted for publication in the REVISTA MEDICO-CHIRURGICALĂ, has not been published and it is not under consideration for publication in another journal.
- we give the consent for publication in the REVISTA MEDICO-CHIRURGICALĂ, in printed and electronic format and we transfer unconditioned and complete the copyright of this manuscript to the REVISTA MEDICO-CHIRURGICALĂ, in the event of its acceptance.
- the manuscript does not break the intellectual property rights of any other person.
- we have read the submitted version of the manuscript and we are fully responsible for the content.
Names and signatures of authors / copyright owners (the following sequence is the authorship of the article):
N.B. All the authors must sign this form