THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 LOCKDOWN ON THE LEVEL AND INTENSITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON ROMANIAN YOUNG ADULTS
COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the lifestyle of billions of citizens and within this context, the measures of social distancing are prone to bring worrying shifts in physical activity habits. The present research aims to evaluate the changes in sport and physical activity among Romanian young adults. Material and methods: The sample includes 417 respondents (most of the interviewees being around 20 years of age) which filled the questionnaire between 5 to 11 March 2021 through an internet application. Our analysis evaluated the frequency and duration of physical activity and how it changed during the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The results show that most of the respondents no longer perform any other physical activity except for walking, within the three studied time frames, with a slight increase during the state of emergency. There are no significant differences between sex and area of residency. The regression model revealed that a higher variation of the average frequency of physical activity after the state of emergency is explained by the model. Conclusions: Our study revealed that the average frequencies of physical activities before, during, and after the state of emergency are moderately correlated.
2. Chtourou H, Trabelsi K, H’mida C, et al. Staying Physically Active During the Quarantine and Self-Isolation. FrontPsychol. 2020; 11: 1708.
3. Owen N, Sparling PB, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Matthews CE. Sedentary behavior: emerging evidence for a new health risk. Mayo Clin. Proc. 2010; 85: 1138-1141.
4. Lavie CJ, Ozemek C, Carbone S, Katzmarzyk PT, Blair SN. Sedentary Behavior, Exercise, and Cardiovascular Health. Circ Res 2019; 124: 799-815.
5. Childs E, deWit H. Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults. Front Physiol 2014; 5: 161.
6. Hall G, Laddu DR, Phillips SA, Lavie CJ, Arena R. A tale of two pandemics: How will COVID-19 and global trends in physical inactivity and sedentary behavior affect one another ? Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2021; 64: 108-110.
7. Booth F.W, Roberts CK, Thyfault JP, Ruegsegger GN, Toedebusch RG. Role of Inactivity in Chronic Diseases: Evolutionary Insight and Pathophysiological Mechanisms. Physiol Rev 2017; 97: 1351-1402.
8. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1996.
9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Link Between Physical Activity and Morbidity and Mortality. https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/mm.htm. Accessed 8.03.2021. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1999.
10. CDC (2017) Active People Healthy Nation at a Glance https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/ downloads/Active_People_Healthy_Nation_at-a-glance_082018_508. pdf. Accesesd 8 March 2021
11. Fiona CB, Salih SAA, Stuart B, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior. Br J Sports Med 2020; 54 (24): 1451-1462.
12. Bentlage E, Ammar A, How D, et al. Practical Recommendations for Maintaining Active Lifestyle during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Literature Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Publ. Health. 2020; 17:6265.
13. Jurak G, Morrison SA, Leskošek B, et al. Physical activity recommendations during the coronavirus disease-2019 virus outbreak. J. Sport Health Sci 2020; 9: 325-327.
14. Yan Z, Spaulding HR. Extracellular superoxide dismutase, a molecular transducer of health benefits of exercise. Redox Biol 2020; 32: 101508.
15. Henriksen A, Johannessen E, Hartvigsen G, Grimsgaard S, Hopstock LA. Physical activity surveil-lance during the COVID-19 pandemic: Using consumer-based activity trackers as a tool for physical activity monitoring in epidemiological studies. JMIR Public Health Surveil 2021; 7(4): e23806.
16. Füzéki E, Groneberg DA, Banzer W. Physical activity during COVID-19 induced lockdown: recommendations. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2020; 15: 25.
17. European Commission, 2018 Special Eurobarometer 472 Sport and physical activity https://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/survey/getsurveydetail/instruments/special/surveyky/2164
18. Schmidt SCE, Anedda B, Burchartz A, et al. Physical activity and screen time of children and adolescents before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Germany: a natural experiment. Sci Rep. 2020; 10: 21780.
19. Wunsch K, Nigg C, Niessner C, et al. The Impact of COVID-19 on the Interrelation of Physical Activity, Screen Time and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents in Germany: Results of the Motorik-Modul Study. Children 2021; 8(2): 98.
20. González-Valero G, Zurita-Ortega F, Lindell-Postigo D, Conde-Pipó J, Grosz WR, Badicu G. Analysis of Self-Concept in Adolescents before and during COVID-19 Lockdown: Differences by Gender and Sports Activity. Sustainability 2020; 12(18): 7792.
21. Bowden Davies KA, Pickles S, Sprung VS, et al. Reduced physical activity in young and older adults: metabolic and musculoskeletal implications. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 2019; 10.
22. Woods JA, Hutchinson NT, Powers SK, et al. The COVID-19 pandemic and physical activity. Sports Medicine and Health Science 2020; 2(2): 55-64.
23. Păunescu C, Piţigoi G, Cosma G, et al. Increasing endurance in physical effort by administration of inosine. Farmacia 2021; 69(1): 148-154 / doi.org/10.31925/farmacia.2021.1.20.
24. Collins JL, Fulton JE. Taking Steps to a Healthier Nation: Increasing Physical Activity Through Walking. J Phys Activity Health 2015; 12 (Suppl 1): S1 -S2.
25. Rojas-Rueda D, De Nazelle A, Tainio M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study. BMJ 2011; 343: d4521 / doi: 10.1136/bmj.d4521.
26. Midgley P. Bicycle-sharing schemes: enhancing sustainable mobility in urban areas. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs 2011; 8: 1-12.
27. Kardiyono K, Soegiyanto S, Rahayu T. Roller Skating Activities as a Reflection of the Community Lifestyle in Semarang Municipality. The Journal of Educational Development 2018; 6(2): 265-271.
28. Lewis EL. Feasibility of venture in Pelham, GA. Georgia Institute of Technology. 1981.
29. CDC (2002) https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/downloads/growing_stronger.pdf.
30. Bø K, Hilde G. Does it work in the long term? - A systematic review on pelvic floor muscle training for female stress urinary incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics 2013; 32(3): 215-223.
31. Phoenix C, Orr N. Pleasure: A Forgotten Dimension of Physical Activity in Older Age, Social Science & Medicine 2014; 115: 94-102.
32. Chelladurai P. Leadership in sports. In: Tenenbaum G, Eklund RC, editors. Handbook of sport psychology 2007: 113-135.
33. Zheng C, Huang WY, Sheridan S, Sit CH, Chen XK, Wong SH. COVID-19 Pandemic Brings a Sedentary Lifestyle in Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17(17): 6035.
34. Katewongsa P, Widyastari DA, Saonuam P, Haemathulin N, Wongsingha N. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical activity of the Thai population: Evidence from Thailand’s Surveillance on Physical Activity 2020. Journal of Sport and Health Science 2021: 10(3): 341-348.
35. Martinez E, Ordu C, Della Sala MR, McFarlane A. Striving to obtain a school-work-life balance: The full-time doctoral student. International Journal of Doctoral Studies. 2013; 8: 39-59.
36. Pal S, Cheng C, Ho S. The effect of two different health messages on physical activity levels and health in sedentary overweight, middle-aged women. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11: 204.
37. Keung C, Lee A, Lu S, O'Keefe M. BunnyBolt: a mobile fitness app for youth, In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, June 2013.
38. Mansart C, Sukitphittayanon S, Pantongkhum P, Thaicharoen S. Go run go: an android game-story application for aiding motivation to exercise. In 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM). December 2015: 407-410.
39. Skriloff SJG, Gonzalez DC, Christensen KC, Bentley LJ, Mortensen CV. FitPlay games: Increasing exercise motivation through asynchronous social gaming. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, May 2016: 164-167.
40. Creative Research Systems 2012. https://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm. Accessed 11 Mar. 21.
41. López-Bueno R, Calatayud J, Andersen LL, et al. Immediate Impact of the COVID-19 Confinement on Physical Activity Levels in Spanish Adults. Sustainability 2020; 12 (14): 5708.
42. National Institute for Sports Research. Research report on the impact of the COVID pandemic upon sports in Romania, 2020.
43. Jakobsson J, Malm C, Furberg M, Ekelund U, Svensson M. Physical activity during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: Prevention of a decline in metabolic and immunological functions. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living 2020; 2: 57.
44. National Institute of Statistics. Population health status during 2019. 2021
45. Simon Fraser University, 2016: MULTICOLLINEARITY, http://www.sfu.ca/ dsignori/ buec333/lecture%2016.pdf. Accessed 16 Mar. 2021.
46. Barkley J, Lepp A, Glickman E, et al. The Acute Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in University Students and Employees. Int J Exerc Sci 2020; 13(5): 1326-1339.
47. Sekulic D, Blazevic M, Gilic B, Kvesic I, Zenic N. Prospective Analysis of Levels and Correlates of Physical Activity during COVID-19 Pandemic and Imposed Rules of Social Distancing; Gender Specific Study among Adolescents from Southern Croatia. Sustainability 2020; 12(10): 4072.
48. Zenic N, Taiar R, Gilic B, et al. Levels and Changes of Physical Activity in Adolescents during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Contextualizing Urban vs. Rural Living Environment. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10 (11): 3997.
49. Guan H, Okely AD, Aguilar-Farias N, et al. Promoting healthy movement behaviors among children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2020; 4(6): 416-418.
50. Constandt B, Thibaut E, Bosscher VD, Scheerder J, Ricour M, Willem A. Exercising in Times of Lockdown: An Analysis of the Impact of COVID-19 on Levels and Patterns of Exercise among Adults in Belgium. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020; 17: 4144.
51. Lesser IA, Nienhuis CP. The Impact of COVID-19 on Physical Activity Behavior and Well-Being of Canadians. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17: 3899.
52. Chen P, Mao L, Nassis GP, Harmer P, Ainsworth BE, Li F. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions. J. Sport Health Sci 2020; 9: 103-104.
53. Stableford S, Mettger W. Plain language: A strategic response to the health literacy challenge. J Public Health Policy 2007; 28: 71-93.
54. UN General Assembly. 2015. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015. http://www.un.org/ga/search/ view_doc.asp?symbol =A/RES/70/1 &Lang= E (2015). Accessed 16 Mar. 2021.
55. WHO. 2018. Global action plan on physical activity 2018-2030: more active people for a healthier world. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. 2. General Assembly UN. Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. United Nations Population Fund. 2015. Available from: https://www.unfpa.org/resources/transforming-our-world-2030-agenda-sustainable-development. Accessed 16 Mar. 2021.
56. Arsene AL, Dumitrescu BD, Drăgoi CM, et al. A new era for the therapeutic management of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Farmacia 2020; 62(2): 185-196. DOI: 10.31925/farmacia.2020.2.1.
57. Ciolan DF, Andrei CL, Mirica A, et al. Internships in pharmaceutical students' development. Farmacia 2020; 68(1): 176-184 / doi.org/10.31925/farmacia.2020.1.25.
58. Andrei CL, Ciolan DF, Mirica A, et al. Internships and the next generation of pharmacists in Romania. Farmacia 2019; 67(2): 378-382 / doi.org/10.31925/ farmacia.2019.2.25.
59. Ciolan DF, Andrei CL, Mirica A, et al. Factors that influence the career path and career satisfaction of a pharmacy graduate in Romania. Farmacia 2021; 69(5): 994-1000 / doi.org/10.31925/ farmacia. 2021.5.25.
Once an article is accepted for publication, MSJ requests a transfer of copyrights for published articles.
COPYRIGHT TRANSFER FORM FOR
REVISTA MEDICO-CHIRURGICALĂ A SOCIETĂȚII DE MEDICI ȘI NATURALIȘTI DIN IAȘI /
THE MEDICAL-SURGICAL JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF PHYSICIANS AND NATURALISTS FROM IASI
We, the undersigned authors of the manuscript entitled
warrant that this manuscript, which is submitted for publication in the REVISTA MEDICO-CHIRURGICALĂ, has not been published and it is not under consideration for publication in another journal.
- we give the consent for publication in the REVISTA MEDICO-CHIRURGICALĂ, in printed and electronic format and we transfer unconditioned and complete the copyright of this manuscript to the REVISTA MEDICO-CHIRURGICALĂ, in the event of its acceptance.
- the manuscript does not break the intellectual property rights of any other person.
- we have read the submitted version of the manuscript and we are fully responsible for the content.
Names and signatures of authors / copyright owners (the following sequence is the authorship of the article):
N.B. All the authors must sign this form